Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Every leader has the desire to make their nation stronger, but how can that be done? A political writer from Italy, named NiccolÃ ² Machiavelli, shared the qualities that he believed a strong leader should have in order to run a successful government in a piece of writing called The Prince. In this book, Machiavelli lists the main ideas or rules that a leader should follow in order to maintain his principality or government. For centuries, governments have been influenced by the political views that he shares in his manuscript. Even in the United States of America, his teachings impact the way that the government is run. MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and writings have largely affected the way that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s government and leaders work towardsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Weakening a strong country is difficult, but is an extremely important task that should be done if that country poses a threat to the rest of the world. Currently, America is trying to weaken North Korea b ecause of the chaos it is creating. North Korea has begun to build and test multiple nuclear weapons. With the successes of their nuclear testing, the country has begun to threaten the USA and their allies. To protect the United States, President Trump has also threatened to attack North Korea with AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear weapons (BBC). Along with this, President Trump and other American leaders are making efforts to convince China to help weaken North Korea. With the US and China being trading partners, China might be willing to help weaken North Korea in an effort not to lose this bond. These plans are excellent demonstrations of how following MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas can be used to stabilize the United States and weaken strong nations. While many of the ideas that Machiavelli introduced helped stabilize the USA, his ideas on maintaining power are unnecessary. In The Prince, Machiavelli discusses how a prince should overcome the difficulties of controlling a new principality. Machiavelli believed the people living in a princeÃ¢â¬â¢s new land could be the
Friday, May 15, 2020
In William Shakespeares Hamlet, a kind of madness ultimately infects everyone, leading to an ending in which almost every major character is dead. Two of these maddened characters are Hamlet and Ophelia, who also share a love for each other. But though their irrational behavior is often similar and their fates alike, one is truly mad while the other is not. Both Hamlet and Ophelia act very strangely. Hamlet, the prince of Denmark, insults everyone around him. He tells Ophelia he never loved her, calls her father a fishmonger, and in subtle ways calls his mother a whore and her new husband a murderer. And Hamlet himself is driven to acts of murder, from the unintentional stabbing of Polonius to the plotting that kills Rosencrantz andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When Polonius tells Ophelia to repel Hamlets advances, she promises to obey. And it is only after their fathers are killed that Hamlet and Ophelia begin to act mad. Both Hamlet and Ophelia are ultimately destroyed. Hamlet, whose quest was to prove the guilt of Claudius no matter what the consequences, is murdered by Laertes in a plot concocted by the king as he felt himself cornered. Ophelia drowns, perhaps willfully. But Hamlets madness is an act while Ophelias is not. Though Hamlet considers suicide in his grief after his fathers death, his madness is part of a plot to snare Claudius for murder. Hamlets tells his friend Horation, I perchance hereafter shall think meet / To put an antic disposition on (II.1.171-172). And though Hamlets behavior is crazy, others see that it is a performance. Polonius notices the method / int (II.2.203-204), and Claudius insists that what he spake, though it lacked form a little, / Was not like madness (III.1.163-164). In contrast, Ophelias madness is real. Her brother, Laertes, mourns that a young maids wits / Should be as mortal as an old mans life (IV.5.157-158) and calls her behavior A document in madness (IV.5.174). And though the queen labels her death an accident, her burial in sacred ground is seen by some as a sacrilege. The play shows the danger of madness, bothShow MoreRelatedThe Madness Of Hamlet And Ophelia1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages11 December 2015 The Madness of Hamlet and Ophelia Psychotic behavior is prevalent in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet as two of his characters, Hamlet and Ophelia, exhibit madness during the play. The play commences after Claudius killed King Hamlet, leaving him in purgatory. Hamlet, after discovering this fact, feigns madness, which he calls an Ã¢â¬Å"antic dispositionÃ¢â¬ (1.5.192) in his plot for revenge to ultimately free his father. Ophelia, on the other hand, succumbs to madness after the death of herRead MoreThe Madness Of Hamlet By William Shakespeare1047 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages3 The Madness in Hamlet In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet, madness is a condition which is difficult to identify whether it is genuine or fraudulent. After the encounter with the ghost of Hamlet Sr. and Hamlet, Hamlet decides to put on an antic disposition. But thereafter he decides this, Hamlet s actions embody someone that is truly mad. This is how Shakespeare makes it difficult to determine if Hamlet is truly mad. Although through his feigned actions and the reactions from others the real madnessRead MoreMadness In Shakespeares Hamlet948 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Madness is a condition in which is difficult to identify whether it is true or not. As in the encounter of the ghost of Hamlet s father and Hamlet, Hamlet is asked to avenge his father s death. To accomplish this task in a less apparent manner, Hamlet decides to put an antic disposition on. Consequently, his behavior thereafter is frequently baffling. William Shakespeare, the writer of the tragic play Hamlet leaves the audience to decide whether Hamlet is truly mad or not. Throughout ShakespeareRead MoreThe Profound Impact Of Female Characters Of Shakespeare s Hamlet930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Profound Impact of Female Characters in Hamlet How much of an impact can the women in a manÃ¢â¬â¢s life have on his thoughts and actions? A mother is the first woman her son will come into contact with, and can skew her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s image of women through her actions. A manÃ¢â¬â¢s significant other also has the ability to bring out the best in him, but can also become the target for his anger and stray emotions. In William Shakespeare s Hamlet, although there are only two main female characters, both womenÃ¢â¬ ¯possessRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Hamlet - Ophelia s Struggle And Madness1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1 Pregnant with MadnessÃ¢â¬â OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Struggle and Madness in Hamlet Yi-Chi Chen Intergrams 11.2(2011): http://benz.nchu.edu.tw/~intergrams/intergrams/112/112-cyc.pdf ISSN: 1683-4186 Abstract Madness in Hamlet is one of the crucial themes for Shakespeare to depict the chaotic turbulence in the Hamlet family and the court of Denmark. Due to ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s usurpation of the Old HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s crown and queen, characters such as Hamlet, Ophelia, and Gertrude suffer seriously from betrayal, resentment, and enragementRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s classic play Hamlet, there are certainly a host of contrasting and influential characters that come together to naturally unfold the surprising events that make up the story. One such character is Ophelia, who spices up the play quite a bit. One of the main components, aside from her unrequited love of Prince Hamlet and her spying on him on behalf of her father and brother, that allows her to be such a central character is her madness, which leads up to her death. Not everyone agreesRead MoreEssay about Is Hamlet Mad or Mad in Craft?1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIs Hamlet Mad or Mad in Craft? Madness is defined as the state of being mentally ill or having extremely foolish behavior. It is a condition in which is difficult to identify whether it is true or not. In William Shakespeares masterpiece, Hamlet, there is confusion as to whether or not his madness is real. The ghost of his father asks Hamlet to avenge his death. While he tries to accomplish this, he puts on an antic disposition. The antic disposition reoccurs throughout the play, but is merelyRead MoreIs Hamlet s Madness Genuine Or Feigned?1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJordan Avery Mrs. Joyner Honors English IV 17 December 2015 Is HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Madness Genuine or Feigned? One of the most controversially discussed themes in William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, Hamlet, is the theme of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s madness. Shakespeare left it up to the audience to decide whether he was truly crazy or not. Although, there are many deliberate acts of fabricated insanity repeated throughout the play. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s life events such as the death of his father, loving someone he cannot have,Read MoreThe Tragedy Of Hamlet By William Shakespeare1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, is a tragic play about the revenge Prince Hamlet is told to take on his uncle, Claudius, by the ghost of Hamlet s father, King Hamlet. According to the ghost of King Hamlet, Claudius had murdered his own brother by pouring poison into his ear while he was sleeping. Claudius also seized the throne and married his deceased brother s widow, Prince Hamlet s mother. Finding out the real reason of his becoming an orphan, from his ghost father, Hamlet sets out toRead MoreHamlet : Revenge, Uncertainty, And Madness1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHamlet is one of William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy play surrounded with three major themes: Revenge, Uncertainty, and Madness. Throughout the play, the theme Madness is surrounding the protagonist, Hamlet. Although, nowadays, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s madness is still an enigma to the readers. His words and actions are highly debated whether he is deeply submerged in the sea of madness or he is merely acting. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, madness is Ã¢â¬Å"the state of having serious mental sickness, or showing
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The concept of globalization, which is the increasing integration and interdependence of different countries from one another in terms of economic, communication, and technological aspects, leads one to address the concept of cultural diversity or multiculturalism. Cultural diversity in the health-care system touches lives of many Americans in one way or another. No matter what our own cultural background is, when we go receive medical care, we may encounter a care giver who comes from a different cultural background than ours(Naylor 1997,291).. In the concept of cultural diversity, it can be recognized that two terms are equally important. The first concept is culture, which refers to the total way of life of individuals, and the uniqueÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In this sense, personal cultural diversity can be seen through the influences of personal experiences that have been acquired and accumulated by the individual through his or her lifetime. Another factor to consider is t he individualÃ¢â¬â¢s religious background or influences, as this would determine the values and practice of morality of the individual. This would also define oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and personality in comparison to other individuals. In addition, the religious influence of an individual, along with his or her personal experiences determines his or her judgments and prejudices regarding a certain issue. Another important factor is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social-economic class background, which refers to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s income levels and lifestyle backgrounds. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s level of income and lifestyle entitles one to develop different views and perceptions regarding different issues or topics. To sum up the points, it can be perceived that in order to understand the concept of personal cultural diversity, the different aspects of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle must be examined and determined in order to point out individual differences in a particular group or society. This is because each individual has different genetic make-up,Show MoreRelatedBeh 220 Applied Final Project1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2012 Applied Final Project 2 Diversity Consciousness was offered to me as a science option for my Business Major. Based on the courses offered I believed that Diversity Consciousness would benefit not only my personal life but it would also benefit me in my career field as well. In my current field I am a leader in a large diverse organization and my expectations for the course was it would provide me with additional skills to become a more effective leader. Diversity Consciousness has expanded myRead MoreCultural Diversity, Multiculturalism, and Inclusion In writing this essay I will provide my reader600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Cultural Diversity, Multiculturalism, and Inclusion In writing this essay I will provide my reader with various scenarios to give a good understanding of Cultural Diversity, Multiculturalism, and Inclusion as well as definitions and their effectiveness in the classroom. First, Cultural Diversity is ethnic, gender, racial, and socioeconomic variety in a situation, institution, or group; the coexistence of different ethnic, gender, racial, and socioeconomic groups within one social unit as in theRead MoreThe Diversity Of The Multicultural Company, And Australia And China923 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis essay has discussed what the challenge of working are in the multicultural company, and Australia and China are the specific countries to be focused on. This essay concluded various factors that may affect workplace behaviour in a cross-cultural environment such as diversity, multiculturalism, ethnocentrism, stereotypes, cultural differences, barriers and cultural intelligence will be discussed. Furthermore, analyse the differences in national cultures and differences in political, social andRead MoreThe Importance Of Teaching Schools With Cultural And Linguistic Diversity Essay1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis essay will consider the importance of effective teaching practice in schools when working with cultural and linguistic diversity. Initially this essay will draw together pedagogical foundations to show the importance for understanding how and why diversity is an issue that needs both personal and professional reflection. Examples of effective practice in three schools will be considered, Clover Park School, Richmond Road School and Finlayson Park School. Creating a learning environment thatRead MoreDiversity789 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPractices, prepare a 500-750-word reflective essay. Within your essay, address the following: * Describe personal frames of reference regarding cultural, linguistic, and gender differences; * Reflect upon how these differences influence your ability to create a learning environment that respectfully encompasses cultural and other individual differences; and * Describe specific ways to incorporate your students abilities, interests, and cultural and linguistic backgrounds into the learningRead MoreAnalysis Of Grace Hsiang s Poem, Fobs, And Twinkies : The New Discrimination Is Interracial1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslanguages that form diversity within America. Having a variety of diversity brings colors into our community, but it also creates conflict within different groups. In Grace HsiangÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËFOBsÃ¢â¬â¢ VS. Ã¢â¬ËTWINKIESÃ¢â¬â¢: The New Discrimination Is InterracialÃ¢â¬ , the author discusses about the cultural conflict within the same ethnicity, and she points out people can avoid internal discrimination by recognizing there are two cultures, Ã¢â¬Å"True AsiansÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å" True AmericansÃ¢â¬ . In Hailey YookÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"Positive SterotypesRead MoreCultural Diversity and Communication Barriers1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrganizations Topic: Cultural diversity and communication barriers Instructors name: Robert Lindquist Date submitted 29 September 2010. Cultural diversity is the power which motivates the development of the thing that makes us different. Cultural diversity is the economic growth, which means leading a more fulfilling emotional, moral and spiritual life. It captures the culture principles, which provide a sturdy basis for the promotion of cultural diversity. Cultural diversity is an asset that isRead MoreDavid Brook s People Like Us 1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJason Iloulian Professor Briscoe Written Expression II 4 Nov 2015 David BrookÃ¢â¬â¢s Essay: Ã¢â¬Å"People Like UsÃ¢â¬ David BrookÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"People Like Us, describes about the tolerance and diversity in the United States. Since the great immigration of the late 19th century, America has been cited as one of the most diverse countries in the world. The United States is home to individuals from many different races, ethnic backgrounds, religions, political views, interests, personalities, and income levels. HoweverRead MoreDoes Ethnic Diversity Portend the Disuniting of America? Essay example1213 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDoes Ethnic Diversity Portend the Disuniting of America? Whether or not Ã¢â¬Å"The First Universal NationÃ¢â¬ of Ben Wattenberg (Buchanan 466) fixes its meaning? Despite it is in law, not all people have the same point-of -view about it in practice. George M. FredricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Models of American Ethnic Relations: A Historical PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ and Patrick J. BuchananÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Deconstructing AmericaÃ¢â¬ essays are typical exemplars. Fredrickson and Buchanan are famous politicians. Ã¢â¬Å"Race in USÃ¢â¬ is one of popular topicsRead MoreIdeas About What Constitutes A Family In Australia Has1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshistory (Featherstone Smaal, 2013). As a result, a wide range of social, cultural and historical changes have influenced family social work today (Collins, Jordan Coleman, 2013). This essay will explore social and cultural changes in Australia over the past fifty years and how these particular changes affect social work practice within families, young people and children. In addition, this essay wil l provide a personal reflection of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s family experiences, and how these experiences will
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theState of Australian Economy for Stable Equilibrium. Answer: Introduction The economic analysis below seeks to understand the health of Australian economy and the need for Australian government intervention by using economic principles and theory. A diagram will be used in the explanation if the concept of a stable economic equilibrium based on the assessment of whether or not the economy of Australia is presently at a stable equilibrium. The phrase equilibrium is drawn from 2 Latin words called acqui and libra. Acqui implies equal while libra means to balance. Therefore, equilibrium implies equal balance. The equilibrium has been applied vitally in economics hence the equilibrium economics. Equilibrium in economics explains a state at which two opposite forces cannot influence each other. Simply put, equilibrium is a position whereby no further change is feasible. Three types of equilibrium include stable, neutral and unstable equilibrium. Concept of Stable Equilibrium We deal with stable equilibrium which can simply be understood by having a ball resting at the bottom of a bowl. The ball is comfort at the bowls base and remains in stable equilibrium and any disturbance still leaves this ball at its original position. The figure below illustrates a stable equilibrium: In the above figure, DD denotes a negatively slopped demand curve and SS represents a positively demand curve. The equilibrium takes place at point E. At this juncture, the demand and supply remain in balance; the equilibrium quantity and price OQ; OP are determined respectively. This is a typical instance of stable equilibrium in economics. What takes place at price above level of equilibrium? Assuming that market price is OP1. At such a price, P1B is quantity supplied whereas the quantity demand is solely P1A. Therefore, quantity supplied remains more than quantity demanded. The surplus quantity in market is to extent of AB. This establishes a downward pressure on price (Plumb, Kent Bishop, 2013). The downward pressure will apply till price hits equilibrium level at which supplied quantity equals demanded quantity. What happens at prices beneath equilibrium level? In the above figure, let us assume the price OP2. At this level of price, supplied quantity is less than demanded quantity. CE1 represents volume of commodity shortage. As a result of excess demand, an upward pressure on price is applied. Such a pressure pushes up price to equilibrium level that supplied quantity equals demanded quantity. Health of Australian Economy Australian economy has enjoyed unprecedented GDP growth since 1991 December. The economy has avoided both the Asian financial crisis (1998) and global financial crisis (2008) without a recession. Contrasted to many other OECD economies who have suffered rises in unemployment and long-run unemployment since then, Australia has persistently powered ahead (Turgeon Simeon, 2015). It remains true that as the GFC hit and tax revenue dropped, Australia ushered in a series of stimulus measures for tackling crisis which moved its economy to deficits in budget from surplus budget. The rating agencies have provided Australia with a triple AAA rating for what they are worth. This implies that they are never concerned about Australian budget deficits or debt. The economy of Australia has slowed down as the boom on commodity come to the end, however, Australia has not gone into the recession. The economy is certainly not in the crisis. The Australian economy has had the stellar performance on the basis of OECD. On the basis of macroeconomic indicators such as GDP, inflation, debt, current account balance, unemployment, Australia has compared favorably. The GDP of Australia has been consistently growing, and the rate of unemployment has been lower consistently contrasted to many other OECD countries since the global financial crisis. The economy enjoys the lowest debt according to Gross Financial Liabilities measures in OECD. In the year 2013, the Debt to GDP ratio of Australia stood at 34.40% and the OECD average stood at 112%. Debt crisis? Whereas other OECD are increasingly concerened with deflation, Australia has managed to go via crisis with negligible inflation. The economy has had current account deficit (CAD) for over a 100 yeears with an exception for each brief spells of surplus. Nevertheless, since GFC, solely Italy and Germany had had lower CADs. It has been argued by Coaliation government in the year 2014 that Australian economy stands in dire straits and is heading to collapse due to enormous budget deficits alongside a ballonning governmet debt (Reid Botterill, 2013). This is threatening to slice welfare, education, health alongside public service. Such mirror austerity measures which have been unable to get most OECD economies back to growth. The government simultenously wanted to abolish mining tax and carbon tax to hit poor and assist rich in 2014. Is Australia Economy Stable/Unstable The Australian economy is developed and remains one of enormous mixed market economies globally with about 1.690 trillion Australian dollars. The economy recorded the lengthiest undisturbed growth in GDP run in developed economies with 2017 March financial quarter. It can be categoricaly stated that Australian economy is a huge, stable and diverse one and even set to continued expansion via its strong trade links to various diverse makets (Downes, Hanslow Tulip, 2014). The economy has demonstrated economic adaptability, resilience, as welll as record of stable and steady economic growth thereby providing a safe and low-risk environmnet that favor busieness. Australian economy is in its twenty-sixth year of consecutuve yearly growth in economy, its economy is underpined by strong insttutions, an extradordinary service sector as well as an ability to efective global changes response. The economy remains the thirteenth global largest and rated AAA by each of the 3 international rating agencies. The economy forecast to realizing averagae yearly real GDP growth of 2.90% over the coming 5 years-the highest among main advanced economies (Bean, McAllister, Pietsch Gibson, 2014). The economy is characterized by high levels of productivity, with fiteen out of twenty industiries rating beyomd global averages. Conclusion The economy of Australia has enjoyed substantial success in the latest decades. This is a manifestation of a strong macroecomic policy, long boom in commodity, and structural reform. The standards of living alongside wellbeing in Australia remain high in general, though certain challenges are inevitabilities with respect to gender gaps and emission of greenhouse gase, as well as challenges emerging from ageing population. Nonetheless, Australia economy remains a classical case of stable equilibrium. References Bean, C., McAllister, I., Pietsch, J., Gibson, R. K. (2014). Australian election study, 2013. Computer file]. Canberra: Australian Data Archive. Downes, P. M., Hanslow, K., Tulip, P. (2014). The effect of the mining boom on the Australian economy. Plumb, M., Kent, C., Bishop, J. (2013). Implications for the Australian economy of strong growth in Asia. Reserve Bank of Australia. Reid, R., Botterill, L. C. (2013). The multiple meanings of resilience: An overview of the literature. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 72(1), 31-40. Turgeon, L., Simeon, R. (2015). Ideology, Political Economy and Federalism: The Welfare State and the Evolution of the Australian and Canadian Federations. Understanding Federalism and Federation, 125.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Battle of Taranto in World War II The Battle of Taranto was fought the night of November 11/12, 1940 and was part of the Mediterranean Campaign of World War II (1939-1945). In 1940, British forces began battling the Italians in North Africa. While the Italians were easily able to supply their troops, the logistical situation for the British proved more difficult as their ships had to traverse almost the entire Mediterranean. Early in the campaign, the British were able to control the sea lanes, however by mid-1940 the tables were beginning to turn, with the Italians outnumbering them in every class of ship except aircraft carriers. Though they possessed superior strength, the Italian Regia Marina was unwilling to fight, preferring to follow a strategy of preserving a fleet in being. Concerned that Italian naval strength be reduced before the Germans could aid their ally, Prime Minister Winston Churchill issued orders that action be taken on the issue. Planning for this type of eventuality had begun as early as 1938, during the Munich Crisis, when Admiral Sir Dudley Pound, commander of the Mediterranean Fleet, directed his staff to examine options for attacking the Italian base at Taranto. During this time, Captain Lumley Lyster of the carrier HMS Glorious proposed using its aircraft to mount a nighttime strike. Convinced by Lyster, Pound ordered training to commence, but the resolution of the crisis led to the operation being shelved.Ã Upon departing the Mediterranean Fleet, Pound advised his replacement, Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham, of the proposed plan, then known as Operation Judgement. The plan was reactivated in September 1940, when its principal author, Lyster, now a rear admiral, joined Cunninghams fleet with the new carrier HMS Illustrious.Ã Cunningham and Lyster refined the plan and planned to move forward with Operation Judgement on October 21, Trafalgar Day, with aircraft from HMS Illustrious and HMS Eagle. The British Plan The composition of the strike force was later changed following fire damage to Illustrious and action damage to Eagle. While Eagle was being repaired, it was decided to press on with the attack using only Illustrious. Several of Eagles aircraft were transferred to augment Illustrious air group and the carrier sailed on November 6. Commanding the task force, Lysters squadron included Illustrious, the heavy cruisers HMS Berwick and HMS York, the light cruisers HMS Gloucester and HMS Glasgow, and the destroyers HMS Hyperion, HMS Ilex, HMS Hasty, and HMS Havelock. Ã Preparations In the days before the attack, the Royal Air Forces No. 431 General Reconnaissance Flight conducted several reconnaissance flights from Malta to confirm the presence of the Italian fleet at Taranto. Photographs from these flights indicated changes to the bases defenses, such as the deployment of barrage balloons, and Lyster ordered the necessary alterations to the strike plan. The situation at Taranto was confirmed on the night of November 11, by an overflight by a Short Sunderland flying boat. Spotted by the Italians, this aircraft alerted their defenses, however as they lacked radar they were unaware of the impending attack. At Taranto, the base was defended by 101 anti-aircraft guns and around 27 barrage balloons. Additional balloons had been placed but had been lost due to high winds on November 6. In the anchorage, the larger warships normally would have been protected by anti-torpedo nets but many had been removed in anticipation of a pending gunnery exercise. Those that were in place did not extend deep enough to fully protect against the British torpedoes. Fleets Commanders: Royal Navy Admiral Sir Andrew CunninghamRear Admiral Lumley Lyster24 torpedo bombers, 1 aircraft carrier, 2 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 4 destroyers Regia Marina Admiral Inigo Campioni6 battleships, 7 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 8 destroyers Planes in the Night Aboard Illustrious, 21 Fairey Swordfish biplane torpedo bombers began taking off on the night of November 11 as Lysters task force moved through the Ionian Sea. Eleven of the planes were armed with torpedoes, while the remainder carried flares and bombs. The British plan called for the planes to attack in two waves. The first wave was assigned targets in both the outer and inner harbors of Taranto. Led by Lieutenant Commander Kenneth Williamson, the first flight departed Illustrious around 9:00 PM on November 11.Ã The second wave, directed by Lieutenant Commander J. W. Hale, took off approximately 90 minutes later. Approaching the harbor just before 11:00 PM, part of Williamsons flight dropped flares and bombed oil storage tanks while the remainder of the aircraft commenced their attack runs on the 6 battleships, 7 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 8 destroyers in the harbor. These saw the battleship Conte di Cavour hit with a torpedo that caused critical damage while the battleship Littorio also sustained two torpedo strikes. In the course of these attacks, Williamsons Swordfish was downed by fire fromÃ Conte di Cavour. The bomber section of Williamsons flight, led by Captain Oliver Patch, Royal Marines, attacked hitting two cruisers moored in the Mar Piccolo. Ã Hales flight of nine aircraft, four armed with bombers and five with torpedoes, approached Taranto from the north around midnight.Ã Dropping flares, the Swordfish endured intense, but ineffective, antiaircraft fire as they began their runs. Two of Hales crews attacked Littorio scoring one torpedo hit while another missed in an attempt on the battleshipÃ Vittorio Veneto.Ã Another Swordfish succeeded in striking the battleshipÃ Caio Duilio with a torpedo, tearing a large hole in the bow and flooding its forward magazines.Ã Their ordnance expended, the second flight cleared the harbor and returned to Illustrious. Aftermath In their wake, the 21 Swordfish left Conte di Cavour sunk and the battleships Littorio and Caio Duilio heavily damaged. The latter had been intentionally grounded to prevent its sinking. They also badly damaged a heavy cruiser. British losses were two Swordfish flown by Williamson and Lieutenant Gerald W.L.A. Bayly.Ã While Williamson and his observer Lieutenant N.J. Scarlett were captured, Bayly and his observer, Lieutenant H.J. Slaughter were killed in action. In one night, the Royal Navy succeeded in halving the Italian battleship fleet and gained a tremendous advantage in the Mediterranean. As a result of the strike, the Italians withdrew the bulk of their fleet farther north to Naples. The Taranto Raid changed many naval experts thoughts regarding air-launched torpedo attacks. Prior to Taranto, many believed that deep water (100 ft.) was needed to successfully drop torpedoes. To compensate for the shallow water of Taranto harbor (40 ft.), the British specially modified their torpedoes and dropped them from very low altitude. This solution, as well as other aspects of the raid, was heavily studied by the Japanese as they planned their attack on Pearl Harbor the following year.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Drawbacks of Persuasive Technology Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Drawbacks of Persuasive Technology - Dissertation Example This leaves the buyer feeling misled and betrayed. Such promotion has a negative impact on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s image and the brand image (Fogg & Tseng, 1999). Ã Moreover, there have been great concerns over the ethical issues that are faced by persuasive technology (Berdichevsky & Neuenschwander, 1999). As the field of persuasive technology is relatively new the persuasive factors from the advertisements are masked. Users most of the time are unaware of the fact that they are being persuaded into acting or behaving in a certain manner. Sometimes users are even unaware of the persuasive medium that is being used. Companies on a number of occasions have used video games and simulations to target children (Fogg, 2002). Ã Other than that there is a general concept among the masses that computers are fair and intelligent machines. Taking advantage of this concept companies develop biased software that confirms the claims of a particular vendor or company (Fogg, 1998). Ã Other than that computer can be used by companies as a scapegoat when companies face a problem. For example, if a person is persuaded by a piece of software and during the persuasion, the consumer suffers some loss the company could easily blame the software as being faulty or could blame the consumer for making a mistake as the software cannot make a mistake (Fogg, 2002). Ã Persuasive technology has been one of the widest tools used by companies to market their products. However, a majority these companies ignore the issues that arise with the implementation of persuasive technology.